Declaration of Independence - 1776
Articles of Confederation - 1777
The Constitution for the United States, Its Sources and Its Application
Our Enemy, The State by A. J. Nock
The Classic Critique Distinguishing 'Government' from 'STATE'
Trial By Jury by Lysander Spooner
Undermining The Constitution by Thom. J. Norton
A History of Lawless Government
The Law by Frederick Bastiat
PERSPECTIVES ON REGULATORY FEDERALISM
Remarks of Paul Colburn, Office of Legal Counsel, Department of Justice
The Federalism Working Group was established under the Domestic Policy Council in August 1985. Later that year, the group began work to address the general problems that officials really didn't know what federalism was and that federalism principles were not considered often enough. The working group developed a ten-point statement of federalism principles, which was issued by President Ronald Reagan in 1986. This was followed by a report on the Status of Federalism in America, which traced political and constitutional developments of the last 50 years and recommended reforms in the institutional process of the Congress and the Executive Branch to ensure that federalism is given greater attention.
Specifically, the Federalism Working Group recommended development of a Federalism Executive Order. In January 1987, President Reagan approved the concept of an Executive Order and instructed the group to develop it. The order was issued on October 26, 1987.
The Executive Order had substantive and procedural components. Substantively, it restated verbatim the basic principles that were contained in the 1986 Statement of Principles prepared by the Working Group, but it also had several sections of concrete policy making guidance and criteria for administration officials to follow.
Executive Order 12612, Federalism
Section 2. Fundamental Federalism Principles. In formulating and implementing policies that have federalism implications, Executive departments and agencies shall be guided by the following fundamental federalism principles:
(a) Federalism is rooted in the knowledge that our political liberties are best assured by limiting the size and scope of the national government.
(b) The people of the States created the national government when they delegated to it those enumerated governmental powers relating to matters beyond the competence of the individual States. All other sovereign powers, save those expressly prohibited the States by the Constitution, are reserved to the States or to the people.
(c) The constitutional relationship among sovereign governments, State and national, is formalized in and protected by the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution.
(d) The people of the States are free, subject only to restrictions in the Constitution itself or in constitutionally authorized Acts of Congress, to define the moral, political, and legal character of their lives.
(e) In most areas of governmental concern, the States uniquely possess the constitutional authority, the resources, and the competence to discern the sentiments of the people and to govern accordingly. In Thomas Jefferson's words, the States are "the most competent administrations for our domestic concerns and the surest bulwarks against anti-republican tendencies."
(f) The nature of our constitutional system encourages a healthy diversity in the public policies adopted by the people of the several States according to their own conditions, needs, and desires. In the search for the enlightened public policy, individual States and communities are free to experiment with a variety of approaches to public issues.
(g) Acts of the national government -- whether legislative, executive, or judicial in nature -- that exceed the enumerated powers of that government under the Constitution violate the principle of federalism established by the Framers.
(h) Politics of the national government should recognize the responsibility of -- and should encourage opportunities for -- individuals, families, neighborhoods, local governments, and private associations to achieve their personal, social, and economic objectives through cooperative effort.
(i) In the absence of clear constitutional or statutory authority, the presumption of sovereignty should rest with the individual States. Uncertainties regarding the legitimate authority of the national government should be resolved AGAINST regulation at the national level.
Sec. 3. Federalism Policymaking Criteria. In addition to the fundamental federalism principles set forth in section 2, Executive departments and agencies shall adhere, to the extent permitted by law, to the following criteria when formulating and implementing policies that have federalism implications:
(a) There should be strict adherence to constitutional principles. Executive departments and agencies should closely examine the constitutional and statutory authority supporting any Federal action that would limit the policymaking discretion of the States, and should carefully assess the necessity for such action. To the extent practicable, the States should be consulted before any such action is implemented. Executive Order No. 12372 ("Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs") remains in effect for the programs and activities to which it is applicable.
(b) Federal action limiting the policymaking discretion of the States should be taken only where constitutional authority for the action is clear and certain and the national activity is necessitated by the presence of a problem of national scope. For the purposes of this Order:
(1) It is important to recognize the distinction between problems of national scope (which may justify Federal action) and problems that are merely common to the States (which will not justify Federal action because individual States, acting individually or together, can effectively deal with them).
(2) Constitutional authority for Federal action is clear and certain only when authority for the action may be found in a specific provision of the Constitution, there is no provision in the Constitution prohibiting Federal action, and the action does not encroach upon authority reserved to the States.
(c) With respect to national policies administered by the States, the national government should grant the States the maximum administrative discretion possible. Intrusive, Federal oversight of State administration is neither necessary nor desirable.
(d) When undertaking to formulate and implement policies that have federalism implications, Executive departments and agencies shall:
(1) Encourage States to develop their own policies to achieve program objectives and to work with appropriate officials in other States.
(2) Refrain, to the maximum extent possible, from establishing uniform, national standards for programs and, when possible, defer to the States to establish standards.
(3) When national standards are required, consult with appropriate officials and organizations representing the States in developing those standards.
This Executive Order has been largely ignored and suppressed by subsequent administrations and Congress.
For the same reason the Real Thirteenth Titles of Nobility and Honor Amendment has been ignored and suppressed!
Blackmail and Influence Peddling with EMOLUMENTS in the form of Money (Graft and Bribery) and other illegal favors, including drugs and sex, moving from hand to pocket of Politicians, Bureaucrats and Legislators, particularly in the Clinton administration!!
Reproduction of all or any parts of the above text may be used for general information.
This HTML presentation is copyright by Barefoot, August 1997
Mirroring is not Netiquette without the Express Permission of Barefoot.
Visit Barefoot's World and Educate Yo'Self
On the Web August 14, 1997
Three mighty important things, Pardn'r, LOVE And PEACE and FREEDOM